On October 14th, 2014 The Internet Rights Charter prepared by the Study Committee promoted by the President of the Italian Chamber of Deputies Laura Boldrini and led by the jurist Stefano Rodotà, was presented to Montecitorio.
The document aims to promote the citizens’ rights online and to defend them against possible government and market impositions.
The Internet Rights Charter comprises fourteen articles based on the rights of digital citizenship, from the right to privacy to the right of access to education and from the right to be forgotten to the neutrality of the net.
In particular, with regard to the last point, which is currently the subject of much debate, the Internet Rights Charter declares its position by specifying that “the right of access to the web must be on an equal footing, with procedures which are both technologically appropriate and updated and capable of eliminating all obstacles of an economic and social nature.” As is well known, the aim of the principle of neutrality of the net is to prevent telecommunications oligopolies from creating fast tracks for chargeable services and governments from preventing gaining access to information.
The document was submitted by the Committee in draft form and will be the subject of a public consultation open to comments and proposals from the public as from October 27th. To examine the 14 articles and for further information on the consultation, please go to the relevant page on the website of the Italian Chamber of Deputies.
Google has presented a new tool for the “right to be forgotten”, by means of which users will be able to request the cancellation of certain results associated with their name.
Following the recent decision by the EU Court of Justice which has established that users can ask search engines to remove results linked to their name, Google has released a new tool for requesting the removal of the content.
Commenting on the indications contained in the judgment, Google has announced that a request for removal can be forwarded by any citizen who considers the information in the results associated with a search relating to their name to be unsuitable, irrelevant or no longer relevant, or even excessive in relation to the purposes for which such information has been published.
On the web page carrying the form, the company advises that “For the duration of implementation of this decision we will evaluate each individual request and try to find an appropriate balance between the individual person’s rights to privacy with the right of everyone to know and share information. When evaluating a request we will establish whether results include outdated information about the user and whether the information is of public interest, for instance whether it relates to financial fraud, professional negligence, criminal convictions or the conduct of public officials.”
Larry Page, Google’s CEO has expressed his concern to the Financial Times regarding the decision of the European Court, stressing that the judgment risks damaging the next generation of digital start-ups and reinforces the repressive actions of those governments which attempt to limit the free flow of information on the Internet.
The company also announced that it is working on setting up a committee of experts for providing advice on how to manage the new facility dedicated to the right to be forgotten.
The right to oblivion on the Internet is again at the centre of the international debate.
This time attention is focused on Spain where at the beginning of the year the Agencia Española de Protección de Datos (AEPD) ordered Google to remove certain links to pages hosting personal information regarding Spanish citizens from its results.
These are a certain number of pages, most of which are newspaper articles, containing news which can be interpreted as damaging for the reputations of the subjects involved. One particular case stands out: that of Doctor Hugo Guidotti Russo, a plastic surgeon who in 1991 was involved in a case of medical malpractice and who is now asking Google to remove the related articles from search results connected with his name.
However, the Spanish Authority’s decision met with a stance of non-collaboration on the part of the Mountain View Company which announced that it had no intention of carrying out what it considers censorship of its results.
In January the controversy between Google and the Spanish Authority ended up in a Madrid Court, where both parties asked the judge to find in favour of the protection of important rights: the Authority asked for the protection of the right to privacy and the right to oblivion whereas Google asked for the protection of the right to inform and freedom of speech.
As reported in the Wall Street Journal, during the trial a lawyer representing Google stated that Spain is the only country where a company is obliged to remove links to Web pages even if these do not contain illegal content of any description.
The Spanish Authority replied that the only way to block access to content is through search engines. This is because newspapers online have the right to refuse to remove legally published news from their archives.
Several weeks later the Madrid Court asked the European Court of Justice for its opinion on the matter. This Court will now have to establish whether the Spanish Authority’s requests are compatible with Community legislation.
The European Court’s decision is awaited with growing interest both in Europe and in the US in that it may establish a decisive precedent for the future of the availability of archive information on the Internet.
This issue is particularly relevant as an overhaul of the EU’s 15-year-old data-protection law is awaited within the next year or two. Currently the main topic of the European debate is conciliation between freedom of speech and the right to privacy.
In November during a conference in Brussels Viviane Reding, the European Commissioner for Justice, stated:
“As somebody once said: “God forgives and forgets but the Web never does!” This is why the “right to be forgotten” is so important for me. With more and more private data floating around the Web – especially on social networking sites – people should have the right to have their data completely removed.”
However, not all data is equal. It should be possible to distinguish between information voluntarily put on a social network site and information published in newspaper articles of global interest, such as those regarding murders. This is what Google’s Global Privacy Counsel Peter Fleischer declares in a post published on his personal blog where he asks for greater clarity regarding the uniquely European concept of the right to oblivion.
Peter Fleischer, who was last year sentenced to six months’ imprisonment by the Milan Court in the Vividown vs. Google case, wonders how a national law could successfully issue orders to remove links that are used globally to search for information.
Fleischer uses the precise case of Google/Vividown as a reference for a reflection that has also been reported by the American press:
“The web is littered with references to my criminal conviction in Italy, but I respect the right of journalists and others to write about it, with no illusion that I should have a “right” to delete all references to it at some point in the future. But all of my empathy for wanting to let people edit-out some of the bad things of their past doesn’t change my conviction that history should be remembered, not forgotten, even if it’s painful. Culture is memory.”
Clearly the debate is still open. For a broader in depth analysis of the various points of view we suggest you should read the relevant pages from The Guardian, El Paìs, The Wall Street Journal and Forbes Magazine.